Revolutionary Culture in Russia
Meanwhile, in Italy
The Rise of Fascism
Initially a supporter of the socialist cause, Mussolini broke with socialism at the outbreak of WWI, becoming a nationalist and convincing Italy to join the war. After the war, he wrote the political platform of the fascists. 1922 was the turning point, the march on Rome. Oct. 29, Victor Emmanuel III invited Mussolini to form govt.
Here is renowned literary critic Margorie Perloff speaking about the importance of the 1909 publication of the Futurist Manifesto in the most prestigious newspaper of the time, the Figaro of Paris.
‘We had stayed up all night, my friends and I, under hanging mosque lamps with domes of filigreed brass, domes starred like our spirits, shrinking like them with the prisoned radiance of electric hearts. For hours we had trampled our atavistic ennui into rich oriental rugs, arguing up to the last confines of logic and blackening many reams of paper with our frenzied scribbling.
‘An immense pride was buoying us up, because we felt ourselves alone at that hour, alone, awake, and on our feet, like proud beacons or forward sentries against an army of hostile stars glaring down at us from their celestial encampments. Alone with stokers feeding the hellish fires of great ships, alone with the black spectres who grope in the red-hot bellies of locomotives launched down their crazy courses, alone with drunkards reeling like wounded birds along the city walls.’ (3)
Antoine Artaud (1896-1948)
The Theatre of Cruelty (first manifesto written 1931)
Reading: All Writing is Pigshit
1903 WEB Dubois The Talented Tenth
Edgard Varese “Ameriques”