Key Terms for Final Exam

Format of your Exams

Part I

Timeline (10 %)

Part II

Identify and State the Significance of the Key terms (40 %)

How to do this:

Say Who, What, When and Where (2 points)

Say Why it was important in the historical context (2 points)

Why: involves lateral thinking.  Better “why” responses will reference other key terms in the answer and will identify causes (before) and effects (after) the term.

The readings will help to provide context and will give you needed background material for the essay.

Part III

Essay (50%)

The essay question for both your midterm and your final is the following: Write a 300 word essay that discusses two of the buildings we have talked about in this part of the semester. You will examine them from one angle—economic, religious, artistic, political, or social. You will argue for similarity or difference in the history surrounding the buildings.


Agricultural Revolution

Reading: McKay, Western Society: Volume II: From Absolutism to the Present, 485 – 494

Work in the 1700s

Moral Economy

–          Agriculture – prior to:

o   Famine Food

o   Fallow fields/ open field system

–          Artisans

o   Guilds

–          Traders (colonization)


o   Enclosure acts, crop rotation

French Revolution

L’Ancien Regime

The Three Estates: First, Second, Third

Nobility of the Robe/ Nobility of the Sword

Bread Riots


–          Discontent bourgeoisie

–          Food shortage

–          Taxation / Financial Crisis

Calling of the Estates General, Tennis Court Oath

–          National Assembly—Third Estate

–          Vote Debate- Doubling of the Third – Third Estate get another Vote

–          Cahiers de Doleances

–          Tennis Court Oath– – write a new constitution; Votes per head, not per estate

National Constituent Assembly

Enlightenment thought – rationalism, reason, secularism

Rousseau –  “men are born free, yet everywhere they are in chains”.

The Noble Savage

Bastille on 14 July 1789

Declaration of the Rights of Man by the National Assembly on 26 August 1789.

Reign of Terror —  Robespierre

Revolutionary Calendar: Ventose, Pluviose, Frimaire, etc.

§  French Rev, la patrie, La Marseillaise

Aux Armes! Citoyens!

…Combats avec vos defenseurs….

Qu’un sang impur abreuve nos sillons!

End of French Revolution

–          Limited Constitutional Monarchy until 1791

–          1792 – France Declares War on Austria

1793 – Universal Mobilization—Nationalism

1792-4 Reign of Terror, especially difficult in areas where reactionaries had been vociferous

–          Dechristianizing French Society

Year One

The meter stick and the kilogram

Napoleon Bonaparte—Son of the Revolution

1799 – Coup d’etat

1802 counsul for life

1804 He makes himself emperor

1810 – French Empire

1812 Invasion of Russia

1814 Defeat of Napoleon, exile to Elba

1815 Return of Napoleon, defeat at Waterloo, Exile to Saint Helena



–          Movement to cities

–          Railways, underground transportation systems

Industrial Rev.

Reading: McKay, Western Society: Volume II: From Absolutism to the Present, 565- 582.

Great Britain—late 18th C

Europe and America – post 1815

Four Closely Related Developments

1.      New Technology

2.      Mineral Sources of Energy

3.      Concentration of Labour in Factories

4.      New Methods of Transportation

Each new Industry required a new labour force

Factors which made Industrialization possible in Britain

  1. Population Growth—at precisely the right rate
  2. Agricultural Productivity
  3. Capital Formation and Accumulation
  4. Demand from Consumers and Producers


Four reasons Industrialization was slower in Europe

1.      Politics in Europe

a.       internal tariffs

b.      poor transport networks

2.      Tariffs on imported products

3.      Aristocratic hostility (indifference) to industrial development

4.      Less Accessible Raw materials (iron, coal, cotton

Effects of Industrialization

  1. Population and Economic Growth
  2. Standards of Living
  3. Women, Children, Industry
  4. Class and Class Consciousness
    1. Britain controlled 1/3 of world’s trade
    2. colonies in Canada, the Caribbean, South America, India, Southeast Asia

19TH century ideologies

McKay, Western Society: Volume II: From Absolutism to the Present, 594-601; 667-669

  • Liberalism

o   Freedom

o   Extension of the franchise

o   Free trade – laissez-faire


    o   Rxn against liberals and Indust. Rev

    o   Means of Production

    o   Owen

    o   Marx and Engels, 667-669

    • Nationalism


    Fin de siècle – 1870 – 1914

    • Three economic changes

    o   Depression 1873 – 1890s

    §  Low transit costs and influx of cheap agric. Goods

    • World’s Rail network increased by 500%

    §  Increased industrial capacity—No Mass Consumer Society

    o   Expansion/ transformation of Industrial Rev—

    Second Industrial Revolution

    §  Synthetic dyes

    §  New techniques for refining petroleum

    §  Steel

    • Electricity
    • Electric Light Bulb—1879  — Edison

    o   Culminates in Eiffel Tower – World Fair 1889

    • Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923)


    §  Revolutions in retailing

    • Department Stores

    o   Reading rooms and restaurants

    o   Mail-order catalogues

    o   Advertising


    McKay, Western Society: Volume II: From Absolutism to the Present,679-691

    Phase I

    • 15th Century—Trading Posts

    Phase II

    • 17th C — Colonial Empires in Africa and India

    Phase III

    • After 1870, expansion more aggressive due to above reasons
    • 1875- 1905—European control of globe went from 65% to 85%

    The Scramble For Africa

    • Berlin Conference 1884
    • “Effectively occupied” the territory
    • Advertising—Sure, they sell soap, but what else are they selling?
    • Babar


    Fin de Siècle and the Feeling of Crisis





    World War One


    The Trench

    Stand To

    The Allies

    The Central Powers

    Franz Ferdinand



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