Here is a timeline for the The Monotheistic Religions
Mithraism and the Mystery Religions
The Rise of Christianity
Jesus’s message to the Jews of Judaea: “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.”
“So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets.”
The most basic values: humility, charity, and brotherly love. These values became very important for medieval Europe and contradicted the values of the Greco-Roman civilizations.
St. Paul (c.5-67)
The most important figure of early Christianity–apart from Jesus–was St. Paul. He was a Jewish Roman Citizen who had been strongly influenced by Hellenistic Greek Culture. He founded Christian communities throughout Asia Minor. Where’s Asia Minor?
So how did we get to having Popes?
Pope Gregory I — 590-604
Gregorian Chant, Plainsong