Sources of Data
● Impressionistic analysis of documents, such as:
• Accounts of events, conversations, impressions, treaties, contracts, etc.
• Personal documents
* autobiographical fragments
● Systematic analysis of documents
• Content analysis
How many times do they say “Black Betty”?
John McCain Concession Speech.
Make two columns. In the right hand column, write positive words; in the left, negative. Record words that are positive (however you may define this) in the right, and negative in the left.
• Calculation of word ratios—e.g., percentage of words and phrases expressing optimism in speeches by government politicians seeking re-election as opposed to speeches by opposition party politicians.
● Participant observation, which it is claimed, allows the researcher to experience
some of the feelings of the persons being studied.
● Systematic observation making use of standardized check-lists
● Unstructured interviews with open-ended questions
● Use of a structured interview schedule
● Surveys in which respondents are provided with a choice of answers
● Available data
• Studies done by university researchers
• Government reports, e.g., the census bureau
• Reports of research done for private companies