Here is the documentary we watched on the Alhambra.
The Islamic sciences (general science, mathematics, medicine) were developed during the Golden Age of Islam (generally under Harun Al-Rashid and his son al-Ma’mun) in the seventh and eighth centuries. Scholars at this time translated works from antiquity (by Aristotle, Plato, Euclid, Ptolemy) into Arabic. Arabic was the lingua franca of the time. (English is the lingua franca today).